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What are the causes of premature birth and its impact on the child?

Many women are exposed to premature birth, which is a birth that occurs more than three weeks before the expected date of delivery, or in other words, a premature birth that occurs before the beginning of the thirty-seventh week of pregnancy, and according to the mayoclinic website, the specific cause of premature birth is often not clear However, there are known risk factors for preterm birth, including:

1: Bodily injury or trauma.

2: Pregnancy with twins, triplets or other complications.

3: A period of less than six months between each pregnancy.

4: Pregnancy through IVF.

5: Problems with the uterus, cervix or placenta.

6: Smoking cigarettes.

7: Some infections, especially the amniotic fluid and lower reproductive tract.

8: Some chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.

9: Underweight or overweight before pregnancy.

10: Recurrent miscarriage or miscarriage.

While not all premature babies experience complications, premature birth can cause short- and long-term health problems in general. The earlier a baby is born, the higher the risk of complications. Birth weight also plays an important role. Some problems may appear at birth, including: :

1: Breathing problems A premature baby may have difficulty breathing due to the immature respiratory system. If the baby’s lungs lack surfactant, a substance that allows the lungs to expand, he may develop respiratory distress syndrome because the lungs cannot expand and contract normally.

2: Premature babies may also have a lung disorder known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Additionally, some premature babies may have long pauses in breathing, known as apnea.

3: Heart problems The most common heart problems that premature babies have are patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and low blood pressure.

4: Brain problems where the child is exposed to a brain hemorrhage, which is known as intraventricular hemorrhage, in which most cases of bleeding are mild and are resolved with little effect in the short term.

5: Digestive problems. Premature babies are more likely to have immature gastrointestinal tracts, leading to complications such as enterocolitis.